1. Nerve structure, 2. Human brain, 3. ANNs,

Que:- Describe nerve structure and synapse in brief.


A neuron is a small cell that receives electro-chemical signal from its various sources and transmits electrical impulses to other neurons.

Nerve Structure

  1. A neuron is composed of nucleus (a cell body) known as soma. Dendrites are long irregularly shaped filaments attached to the soma.
  2. The dendrites behave as input channels, all input from other neurons arrive through the dendrites.
  3. The axon is electrically active and serves as an output channel.
  4. Axons are non-linear threshold device which produce a voltage pulse called action potential or spike that lasts for about a millisecond.
  5. If the cumulative inputs received by the soma raise the internal electric potential of the cell known as membrane potential, then the neurons tires by propagating the action potential down the axon to excite other neurons.
Nerve structure
Structure of neuron

Nerve structure


  1. Synapses (nerve endings) are elementary structural and functional, that mediate the interactions between neurons.
  2. The axon terminates in a specialised contact called synapse or synaptic junction that connects the axon with the dendritic links of another neuron.
  3. The synaptic junction which is a very minute gap at the end of the dendritic link contains a neuro-transmitter fluid.
  4. Each dendritic link can have many synapses acting on it thus bringing about massive interconnectivity.
  5. The size of the synapse is believed to be related to learning. Thus, synapses with larger area are thought to be excitatory while those with small area are believed to be inhibitory. Again it is the increased neuronal activity which is thought to be responsible for learning and memory.

Que:- Define structure of human brain with the help of neuron structure.


The concept of neurons as the fundamental constituent of the brain has made the study of its functioning comparatively easier. A neuron is a small cell that receives electro-chemical signals from its various sources and in turn responds by transmitting electrical impulses to the neurons. Brain contains about 1010 basic units called neurons. Each neuron in turn, is connected to about 104 other neurons. While some of the neurons perform input and output operations, the remaining from a part of an interconnected network of neurons which are responsible for signal transformation and storage of information.

Physical structure of the human brain cross-section view.

Que:- Define an artificial neural network. State the properties of the processing element of an artificial neural network ?


  1. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is a simplified model of the biological nervous system and performs the computing task as the human brain.
  2. It is a massively parallel distributed processing system made up of highly interconnected neural computing elements that have the ability to learn and thereby acquire knowledge and make it available to use.

Properties of processing element:

  1. An artificial neural network is composed of many simple processing elements (called artificial neurons) whose functionality is loosely based on the neurons in human.
  2. Processing element learns via a process of adjustments to the connections between the processing elements and element parameters.
  3. The processing elements are connected into a particular network pattern, with different patterns serving different functional purposes.
  4. The output of processing element in artificial system is electrical only, and may be either analog or digital, or a hybrid.

Que What is artificial intelligence ? What are three technologies in artificial intelligence ?


Artificial Intelligence:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems that behave in some form of intelligence. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that deals with ways of representing knowledge using symbols rather than numbers, or heuristic method for processing information.

Technologies in artificial intelligence

  1. Robotics: This involves developing the mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision.
  2. Natural language processing: It helps computers to understand and reacts to statements and commands made in natural language such as English.
  3. Neural networks: It is a branch of artificial intelligence where the creation of neural network model leads to a computer program which is able to think and learn.

Download Question Paper 2020-21 Application of Soft Computing

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1. Nerve structure, 2. Human brain, 3. ANNs,

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